Are sweeteners safe and healthy? 甜味剂是否真的安全又健康?

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你喜欢吃甜食吗?你担心糖的摄入量过高吗?你也许听过甜味剂这个东东但对它真的了解吗?甜味剂真的像传说中那样又甜又健康吗?在英国,甜味剂产业估值约为六千万英镑。但甜味剂能有效帮助缓解英国肥胖人数增长的趋势吗?《随身英语》带你看看专家的解读。

课文内容

Vocabulary: Sweetener 词汇 : 甜味剂

For many of us, the relationship we have with sugar is love at first taste, and that love usually lasts a lifetime. But what price do we have to pay for this truly addictive, sugary love? Rotten teeth? Heavier bodies? Raised blood sugar levels? Or even type 2 diabetes?

Time to quit perhaps? Easier said than done. What’s the alternative? Many would suggest using sweeteners as a substitute. But are sweeteners healthier than sugar?

Sweeteners are usually low-calorie or calorie-free substances that have a similar taste to sugar. It is estimated that more than a quarter of British households buy artificial sweeteners to help cut their sugar intake.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has approved some of the health claims food manufacturers have made about sweeteners such as xylitol, sorbitol and sucralose. These include preventing tooth decay and controlling blood sugar levels.

According to the National Health Service in the UK, sweeteners are safe to use and are especially helpful for those who are diabetic. Sioned Quirke, a spokesperson for the British Dietetic Association says, “As a dietician, I support and promote the use of sweeteners in cooking and diet." She also says that "There is no evidence to suggest that low-calorie sweeteners, such as saccharin, aspartame and sucralose, are harmful or bad for you.”

But many have concerns over the long-term effects caused by using sweeteners.  Dr Robert Lustig, author of 'Fat Chance: The Bitter Truth About Sugar' would not endorse sweeteners as an alternative to sugar because, “We have a dearth of data”. According to Dr Lustig, organisations like EFSA only require studies which test if something will poison a person in a short period of time, otherwise known as acute toxicity studies. But we still don’t know what the long-term effects are.

Dietician Emma Carder says on the NHS Choices website, “While more research is needed, sweeteners continue to have a useful role in offering a sweet taste without adding extra calories.”

词汇表

sugary 甜的
rotten 非常糟糕的、不好的
blood sugar levels 血糖水平
type 2 diabetes 2型糖尿病
a substitute 替代物,代用品
low-calorie 低热量的,低卡路里的
calorie-free 无卡路里的
artificial sweeteners 人造甜味剂
cut one’s sugar intake 减少糖的摄入量
health claim 健康声明
xylitol 木糖醇
sorbitol 山梨糖醇
sucralose 三氯蔗糖
tooth decay 蛀牙
diabetic 糖尿病的,糖尿病患者
saccharin 糖精
aspartame 天门冬氨酰苯丙氨酸甲酯(一种甜味剂)
endorse 支持,赞同
dearth 缺乏,不足
acute toxicity 急性毒性

测验与练习

1.  阅读课文并回答问题。

1. True or false? Sweeteners can be used to treat type 2 diabetes.

2. True or false? According to dietician Sioned Quirke, studies have shown that low-calorie sweeteners are good for people.

3. What health claims about sweeteners did the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approve according to this article?

4. What are the long-term effects caused by using sweeteners?

5. According to the author, why do British people use sweeteners?

2.  请你在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。从每个表格中选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1. I just love cheesecake! I have to eat at least one every day - I think I am __________!

addict                          additive                   addicting                  addicted

2. Some people believe using natural ingredients as a _________ for sugar helps maintain a healthy diet.

substitute                     subtitle                    alternate                  alternated          

3. Food manufacturer have _________ that using sweeteners can help people lose weight.

say                              arguing                   claimed                    reported    

4. Sweeteners are said to be useful for people who are _________.

diachronic                     diabetic                  diacritic                    diabetes

5. I have a _________ tooth.

sugary                          sweet                     sugar                       candy

答案

1.  阅读课文并回答问题。

1. True or false? Sweeteners can be used to treat type 2 diabetes.
False. Sweeteners can be used to help people with diabetes.

2. True or false? According to dietician Sioned Quirke, studies have shown that low-calorie sweeteners are good for people.
False. Dietician Sioned Quirke did not say sweeteners were good for people. She said there was no evidence to suggest that low-calorie sweeteners are harmful or bad for people.

3. What health claims about sweeteners did the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approve according to this article?
The European Food Safety Authority approved claims like preventing tooth decay and controlling blood sugar levels.

4. What are the long-term effects caused by using sweeteners?
We do not know what the long-term effects are.

5. According to the author, why do British people use sweeteners?
British people use sweeteners to help cut their sugar intake.

2.  请你在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。从每个表格中选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1. I just love cheesecake! I have to eat at least one every day - I think I am addicted!

2. Some people believe using natural ingredients as a substitute for sugar helps maintain a healthy diet.

3. Food manufacturer have claimed that using sweeteners can help people lose weight.

4. Sweeteners are said to be useful for people who are diabetic.

5. I have a sweet tooth.